Free flight, for its part, weakly influences the territory exposing its inability to transform it. By showing how Oisans is adopting new practices, the results of this research propose an indicator of the social, cultural and adaptive properties of the territory, as well as the capacity of its actors, to transform practices. Due to the territorial impact of innovative practices and reactions to them, the persistence of belief in winter sports is very interesting to reconsider.
This questions the activity based on skiing and continues to seem to determine the choices of the actors. Several lines of work are emerging to continue this research. New practices such as snowkiting, speedriding, and electric bikes and mountain bikes deserve special attention.
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An analysis of the role of tourists and day-trippers in the transformation of Oisans is designed to shed a different light from that of local ownership initiatives. Going beyond the scale of the Oisans area, a comparison with other mountain territories, Alpine, Pyrenean or coastal areas, remains to be realized. Structure, opposition, enjeux. The research analyses the relationship between metropolis and mountain in the context of recent territorial reforms in France and in Italy. As in France, in Italy metropolises are instituted in by the law No.
The French and Italian territorial reforms allow each metropolis to adopt its own legal statute and this is an element of distinction of the metropolitan territories from each other Vandelli and De Donno, But the notion of entroterra seems to be hard to define.
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It evokes specific territorial characteristics, but also different ways of looking at them and apprehending them. This territory is little known and hardly frequented by tourists, especially compared to the coast. It is hard to define … it is the entroterra! What about its identity. Historically, it was a rural territory that was gradually abandoned especially since the second post-war period , mainly because of the many difficulties in agricultural work and, at the same time, the attractiveness of manufacturing activities located on the coast.
The terraces called fasce built and maintained for centuries are deteriorating more and more, causing serious problems of hydrogeological imbalance. Few farmers remain or return, although some specific policies are conducted by the Liguria Region. At present, the entroterra is mainly perceived as a territory preserved by the urbanization which characterizes, on the other hand, the coast and with a touristic potential which can be complementary to the sea tourism.
Institutional stakeholders point out the geographical situation as the greatest obstacle to the development of the region. Speeches are collected in order to compare the point of view of the city looking at the mountain to that of the mountain re looking itself in the new institutional framework. The analysed corpus consists of:. In the analysed corpus, three main relationships or comparisons are evoked: with the sea, with other mountains especially Alps and with the city of Genoa or other Institutions see examples below.
The relationships with the entroterra are complex and unavoidable for Genoa a local researcher.
Thus, the traditional rural character of the entroterra is also highlighted, but it remind at the same time the difficulties related to mountain agricultural activities mainly due to orography, fragmentation of land property, abandonment context, wild animals, etc. On the one hand, we can suppose some lack of identity and sense of belonging, probably due to the depopulation and repopulation cycles that characterized this territory and, on the other hand, we can point out the need to build a shared territorial identity to define a common vision.
Can the recent territorial reform, and in particular the institution of the Metropolis, represent a pertinent framework to design the cooperation between complementary metropolitan territories? Territorial morphology a system of interconnected urbanized valleys converging on Genoa and the secondary towns located on the coast, fig.
In the same way, we can question the new distribution of competences between the Metropolises and the Regions which, in a concern of preventing overlapping of tasks, requires the separation of some public policies that it is essential to coordinate: Metropolises must deal with economic development while losing, for example, the competences of tourism and agriculture that previously were due to the Provinces. The strategy for this inner area foresees a greater specialization of this metropolitan territory in addition to a better services endowment by focusing mainly on the enhancement of the environmental aspect in order to constitute and promote a district for tourism and outdoor sports.
Becattini , this economic model adapted to the tourist vocation envisaged by the local stakeholders refers, once more, to the question of the territorial identity because the fundamental character of the Italian districts is the incorporation of knowledge and productions into local identity, environment and lifestyles Magnaghi, Less than three years from the institution of the Metropolises in Italy, it is difficult to take stock of the cooperation strategies put in place.
Some innovations in metropolitan governance seem a priori favourable to cooperation between the city and the mountains. Anywhere, there remain fundamental inconsistencies, such as the relevance of the new redistribution of administrative tasks or the mode of election of the metropolitan mayor.
The Antola-Tigullio inner area can be a prototype for future territorial cooperation inside the Metropolis if the approach implemented, concerning several local administrations, will listen and value all the expressions of the various territorial identities that have been stratified in the entroterra. Bonomi, A. La montagna disincantata. Burlando, R. Genoa: Provincia di Genova. Calvaresi, C. Il primo passo per costruire insieme il territorio metropolitano April Magnaghi, A. La lunga marcia del ritorno al territorio.
Becattini, La coscienza dei luoghi. Il territorio come soggetto corale pp. Rome: Donzelli. Vandelli, L.
But over the last few years, several new geographical areas have been discussed more deeply about these issues. This area, full of historical events, have a complex history and geographical context. Indeed, this mountainous land possesses some singularities which tend to change the manner of build households, churches or even castles. The Geneva diocese appears during the fourth century, probably at the end of it.
It will grow to become one of the biggest diocese during the medieval period [Fig 1]. In fact, its territory reach at its peak Nyon Switzerland in the north, almost Nantua in the west, Aix-les-Bains and Ugine in the south and Chamonix in its eastern part Lullin, Le Fort, Between the thirteenth and the sixteenth centuries, which correspond to the last part of the middle age, the Geneva diocese, is a religious entity.
But at that time, this territory is divided between three major families namely the Counts, then Dukes, of Savoy, the lords of Faucigny and the Counts of Geneva. The three of them appear at the end of the reign of the Burgundy empire when this last became weak. They will gain lands and powers over the the Bourgogne legacy. But the many conflicts between those three families make the borders really unstable. Peace will settle until the sixteenth century.
But the Protestant Reformation will lead to a war against the Berneses inhabitant from Berne then against the French the next century. At last, the Savoy will become a French possession during the nineteenth century. Both are located on the territory between the Chablais and the Faucigny corresponding to the south-east of Lake Geneva , a mountainous land shared by the Lords of Faucigny and the Counts of Savoy until Both have been built on a rock at meters of altitude. A period of conflicts began in between these two buildings separated only by a ditch of meters and it lasted for approximately a century, until This knowledge also makes it possible to document the evolution of regional defensive and building technics Benoit, PhD on going.
It seems to be known by texts from the twelfth century and was one of the main residences of the Lords of Faucigny for two centuries at least. It had replaced the old castle of Faucigny which was less comfortable Le Renard, The latter was also engaged to the Dauphin of Viennois in this castle during the thirteenth century.
The castle position as a stronghold for the valley entrance and its town located at a major economic crossroads down the hill made it very important. The aim is not to present a detailed archeological study or every step of construction of each sites but to question the different factors to consider during constructions or repairs of a fortified place. These are general reflections and a state of knowledge on these problematics. What kind of material? What about the workforce?
Which kind of jobs? Concerning the methodology there are three different approaches. The first one is to consult ancient texts which gives us information on the various restauration or construction works. Sometimes we can find information on the nature of the materials, their sources and their costs.
Then we can cross-reference theses information with toponyms in order to try to locate supply locations. This involves the analysis of the old land registries with the chance to benefit for the Savoy territory of the oldest European cadasters Sardinian map Finally, the field observations allow us to identify the building materials still visible and if we couple these observations to a geological map we can trace some paths of the material. We will see then that our two castles observe quite different patterns.
Now that we have state the obvious, we can ask ourselves why. Geographical constraints are obviously numerous whether it is for the material transport or for the construction itself. Architects and builders had to think differently, to adapt the local topography. Each of these respond to a specific use even if some exceptions exists where some replace others. In the French alps the wood is mainly used for the different parts of the roof, some walls, the floors, the door leaves, drawbridges and removable defense structures such as palisades, wooden galleries or brattices which are small overhanging defensive structure in wood often placed before the entrance of a passage way Poisson, Schwien, Finally, the iron serves almost exclusively as a fixation or as a reinforcement of wooden structures like door fitting or window bars.
If these three types of material are the most common, each site does not have the same remains as we will see. Very few archeological remains of wood are still in the castle of Allinges-Neuf. In fact, we were not able to specific analysis on this because of the lack of data for this essence on our region.
Old texts are hardly more loquacious concerning the provenances or the varieties of wood used with only one mention of a piece of wood bought in Lausanne. But, they tell us more about the use that is made of it. Those are shake roof, a kind of roof made with wood shingle which are made of thin slats of wood. They are assembled by thousands then fixed on the frame with nails. We also buy wood for construction scaffolding. For Allinges-Neuf, the stone using is better documented thanks to the still important remains but also thanks to the various field investigations carried out between and Five different kinds of stone were identified on the site : it is sandstone, gray limestone, granite, gneiss and shale.
Petrographic studies have been done to know the original provenance of these stones.
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Moreover, pedestrian surveys were conducted to locate possible quarries all around the castle. Six building stones quarries have been identified plus four quarries for grinding wheels [Fig 4]. From this come the following outcomes: the supply of stone for the construction of the castle is very predominantly local.
The rocky hill on which the castle is built directly serves as a quarry for sandstone. The gray limestone can be find at the bottom of the hill. Are they imported? Also, the most likely hypothesis is that they came from a turnover of the geological evolution of the landscape and that it is in fact pickup stones Baud, Schmitt, With the proximity of the materials comes low transport costs and shortened delay for the construction. The sandstone has the advantage of going out by bed relatively regular which simplifies from the beginning the implementation. Also, we observe walls with good foundations although irregular.
The workforce is another main entrance in the construction problematic. We find mainly two trades namely carpenters and masons, but we also have some carrier, blacksmiths or simple workers. By consulting the texts, we realize that the workers came from a lot of different places and not only from the village beside the castle.
Indeed, the latter is not really occupied by civilians outside wartime as stated in the charters. These workers came sometimes from afar and they probably housed on site the time of work. We can therefore ask ourselves the question of the itinerant work during the Middle Ages. This first quick chart already plans a mode of operation and construction in an alpine territory.
No evidence of wood remains have been find yet on the castle site.
But the mentions in the old texts are numerous. The oak completely dominates the wooden construction, the other species being absent here. In the same way, several places of supply are known: the goytroussa forest, the Leyrons pasture, the Cheveriis pasture as well as at least 4 others. It is now difficult to locate them following the actual map, but work is underway on the subject which will allow us to refine the routing area.
However, some of these sites appear to be around Taninges and St. The usefulness of the material remains the same as for the other castles and we find it in the shake roofs, in the doors, the walls, the floors or the paneling. At Allinges-Neuf the majority of building stones were taken from the site, here it is more nuanced. Two main materials have been observed: limestone and tuff. Unfortunately, we could not do petrographic analyzes to determine the provenance of the stones.
However, ancient texts fill this gap a little. Although it is possible that the rocky hilltop on which the castle is built has been used as a quarry, but there is no longer any face in this area. If we look at these provenances as well as the local topography we quickly realize that the costs and transport times of building materials have been significant for this site. Also, in this case, the budget allocated to the transportation of materials in the accounts is more important than in Allinges.
Another rather curious import is observed. Indeed, while there must have been a blacksmith on site or at least in the town of Cluses, we can see that nails are often imported from Geneva either at the other end of the current department of Haute-Savoie. We do not have an explanation for this phenomenon yet. Perhaps it is simply linked to an acquaintance or offer more attractive than local manufacturing.
The workforce scheme is quite similar to the previous one [Fig 6]. They came from many different places, but a particular example challenges us. A master digger who lived in Ayse, not too far from the castle is known to have been debauched from Burgundy. We have observed other similar cases in different sites and it seems the labor market and the craft market allow to dislodge masters craftsmen in other regions.
At this stage of the research, several aspects appear. First of all, the well state of preservation and the amount of conserved remains make the site of Allinges one of the major witnesses of the castral implantation on the territory of Haute-Savoie. Thus, its study has made it possible to consolidate and to increase the archaeological and historical knowledge on fortifications and their evolutions in a given territory.
The next study of the castle of Chatillon will also complete those data. Concerning the construction problematics, two different trends seem to come off. The first one is to build with what we have on site. The second is more based on importing materials. Does this have to do with the quality of materials on site? Possible if we take the example of the castle of Vincenne who has bought his timber at the other end of Europe. Another clue is the knowledge of the intrinsic qualities of the different types of materials.
Finally, this is rarely the case in mountain environments, but fashion effects also have an impact on buildings. Regarding the workforce, it is rarely taken on the spot but comes from the whole region. Salaries are based on skills, not provenance. There are questions of supply, types of materials used pine and fir used in the plains but not in the mountains but also the presence of nearby labor. The next compilations of data will allow a more in-depth analysis of these questions.
RFO de prospection, 3vol. Questa Iddea in tre parti consiste. La prima dicesi pianta, o radice. La seconda elevatione, o alzato. Jessica Pommier is a lover of adventure trips in backpack.
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